The EU has fallen behind the US and Asia in recent decades in important digital technologies: semiconductor manufacturing has shifted to east Asia and Europe lacks any consumer-facing firms with the scale of America’s digital monoliths. The EU sees this as a risk to Europe’s autonomy, security and commitment to competitive markets. Its regulatory proposals and public investments are increasingly aimed at curbing the power of US tech giants while securing European leadership in emerging technologies. But China and the US also want sovereignty over how technology is regulated in their own jurisdictions and to control global technology standards. This poses threats to Europe’s existing digital successes and its prospects for regaining technological leadership.