Energy & climate

Why the EU's recovery fund should be permanent: Country report - France

11 November 2021
COVID-19France has had one of the highest rates of COVID-19 cases and deaths in the EU, after three large waves in March and October 2020, and in the spring of 2021. Like most European countries, France provided a ‘chômage partiel’ furlough scheme for workers in businesses that were forced to...

Why the EU's recovery fund should be permanent: Country report - Germany

11 November 2021
COVID-19Germany locked down at an early stage of the first wave in March 2020, which meant that it suffered fewer hospitalisations and deaths than most other countries in Western Europe. Deaths in the autumn and winter waves of the disease were lower than its peers, too. Its fiscal response to...

Why the EU's recovery fund should be permanent: Country report - Greece

11 November 2021
COVID-19 While Greece managed to avoid a large first wave of Covid-19 infections by locking down early in spring 2020, it suffered from two further waves – and two further lockdowns – in November-December 2020 and in April-May 2021. Most activities re-opened in mid-May 2021.
In 2020, government support to the economy...

Why the EU's recovery fund should be permanent: Country report - Italy

11 November 2021
COVID-19Italy has been among the European countries hardest-hit by COVID-19, having suffered a particularly harsh first wave in spring 2020. A nationwide lockdown was introduced on March 9th. Between mid-March and mid-May 2020, the government implemented a range of fiscal packages amounting to over €860 billion, covering support for businesses...

Why the EU's recovery fund should be permanent: Country report - Poland

11 November 2021
COVID-19 While the impact of the first wave of Covid-19 infections in spring 2020 was small in Poland, the country suffered from two large waves peaking in November 2020 and in May 2021. 
The fiscal policy response in 2020 totalled 5.3 per cent of GDP and included numerous measures, from wage subsidies...

Why the EU's recovery fund should be permanent: Country report - Portugal

11 November 2021
The impact of the pandemic on PortugalDeaths have been close to the EU average, at around 1,700 per million.1 Portugal locked down promptly in the first wave of the pandemic, but the country suffered further waves, with the peak of the pandemic coming in early February 2021, with over...

Why the EU's recovery fund should be permanent: Country report - Romania

11 November 2021
The impact of the pandemic on RomaniaTotal cases per million of population have been comparatively low in Romania, while deaths have been around the EU average, at 1,700 per million. This is because cases have been undercounted and the health-care system has struggled to cope with the pandemic. Like many...

Why the EU's recovery fund should be permanent

11 November 2021
The recovery fund will raise growth, and member-states’ investments and reforms are largely the right ones. But to make a big difference to climate change, the fund needs to be permanent and much larger.

Why the EU's recovery fund should be permanent: Country report - Spain

08 November 2021
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Spain As of July 2021, Spain had suffered over 81,000 confirmed deaths, with its worst wave in January 2021.1 Lockdowns were put in place in March-June 2020 and in October 2020-May 2021. This took a toll on economic activity, as GDP dropped by...

Why have Europe's energy prices spiked and what can the EU do about them?

28 October 2021
Europeans’ skyrocketing energy bills are not primarily Russia’s fault, though it is capitalising on Europe’s vulnerability.

The 'Fit for 55' climate proposals explained

27 July 2021
The costs of the Commission’s proposals to meet the EU’s 2030 climate goals need to be distributed in a more progressive way.

Avoiding the pitfalls of an EU carbon border adjustment mechanism

05 July 2021
A leaked draft of the EU’s CBAM regulation provides fresh insights into what the Commission plans to do. But it also raises a number of tricky questions. 

How to decarbonise EU road transport without summoning the gilets jaunes

19 May 2021
Extending carbon pricing to road transport will initially make driving more expensive, hurting poorer households.

The EU's carbon border adjustment mechanism: How to make it work for developing countries

Sam Lowe
22 April 2021
The EU should exempt developing country exports from its CBAM to avoid unfairly penalising countries that have contributed a much smaller share of cumulative global carbon emissions.

A tale of batteries, Brexit and EU strategic autonomy

Sam Lowe
23 October 2020
Recently leaked proposals suggest the EU wants to use the EU-UK trade deal to help on-shore an electric vehicle supply chain.

Gas heats up the eastern Mediterranean

23 April 2020
Disagreements over who gets to exploit gas in the eastern Mediterranean have raised tensions in the region, led to EU sanctions on Turkey, and made resolving the Libyan conflict more difficult. Much is now riding on Ankara’s next moves.

Should the EU tax imported CO2?

Sam Lowe
24 September 2019
An EU carbon border tax would be tricky to design, costly to implement and sure to provoke legal challenges. But if done properly there are reasons to think it could succeed. 

Moving back the finishing line: The EU's progress on climate

Noah Gordon
23 September 2019
European leaders’ aim to go carbon neutral by 2050 will not happen without much tougher emissions curbs by 2030, and a sizeable increase in research and development funding.

Europe without the UK: Liberated or diminished?

Sophia Besch, Ian Bond, Agata Gostyńska-Jakubowska, Camino Mortera-Martinez, Sam Lowe
13 March 2019
In 2016 the CER made ten predictions about the effect of Brexit on future EU policy. How do they stand up now, on the eve of the UK’s departure?

The fight for liberal values: Annual report 2017

06 February 2018
The CER's annual report features essays on the creation of the CER, the CER at 20, Brexit, economics and Donald Trump's impact on geopolitics, it also highlights some of our work on foreign and defence policy.