John Springford

John Springford

Deputy director
Areas of expertise 

Britain and Europe, migration and labour markets, the single market and supply side reform, international trade, the euro, fiscal and monetary policy.

Twitter 
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Why the EU's recovery fund should be permanent: Country report - Greece

11 November 2021
[NAVIGATION]
COVID-19 While Greece managed to avoid a large first wave of Covid-19 infections by locking down early in spring 2020, it suffered from two further waves – and two further lockdowns – in November-December 2020 and in April-May 2021. Most activities re-opened in mid-May 2021.
In 2020, government support to the economy...

Why the EU's recovery fund should be permanent: Country report - Germany

11 November 2021
[NAVIGATION]
COVID-19Germany locked down at an early stage of the first wave in March 2020, which meant that it suffered fewer hospitalisations and deaths than most other countries in Western Europe. Deaths in the autumn and winter waves of the disease were lower than its peers, too. Its fiscal response to...

Why the EU's recovery fund should be permanent: Country report - Portugal

11 November 2021
[NAVIGATION]
The impact of the pandemic on PortugalDeaths have been close to the EU average, at around 1,700 per million.1 Portugal locked down promptly in the first wave of the pandemic, but the country suffered further waves, with the peak of the pandemic coming in early February 2021, with over...

Why the EU's recovery fund should be permanent: Country report - Romania

11 November 2021
[NAVIGATION]
The impact of the pandemic on RomaniaTotal cases per million of population have been comparatively low in Romania, while deaths have been around the EU average, at 1,700 per million. This is because cases have been undercounted and the health-care system has struggled to cope with the pandemic. Like many...

Why the EU's recovery fund should be permanent: Country report - France

11 November 2021
[NAVIGATION]
COVID-19France has had one of the highest rates of COVID-19 cases and deaths in the EU, after three large waves in March and October 2020, and in the spring of 2021. Like most European countries, France provided a ‘chômage partiel’ furlough scheme for workers in businesses that were forced to...

Why the EU's recovery fund should be permanent

11 November 2021
The recovery fund will raise growth, and member-states’ investments and reforms are largely the right ones. But to make a big difference to climate change, the fund needs to be permanent and much larger.

Why the EU's recovery fund should be permanent: Country report - Spain

08 November 2021
[NAVIGATION]
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Spain As of July 2021, Spain had suffered over 81,000 confirmed deaths, with its worst wave in January 2021.1 Lockdowns were put in place in March-June 2020 and in October 2020-May 2021. This took a toll on economic activity, as GDP dropped by...

The cost of Brexit: May 2021

21 July 2021
The Centre for European Reform estimates that leaving the single market and customs union has reduced UK trade in goods by £10 billion or 13.5 per cent in May 2021.  

The cost of Brexit: April 2021

14 June 2021
We estimate that leaving the single market and customs union had reduced UK trade by 11 per cent in April 2021. That is on top of our previous finding of a 10 per cent hit to trade between the referendum and leaving the single market.

The cost of Brexit: March 2021

12 May 2021
We estimate that leaving the single market and customs union had reduced UK trade by 11 per cent in March 2021. That is on top of a 10 per cent hit to trade between the referendum and leaving the single market.